Glutamic acid is biosynthesized from a number of amino acids as well as ornithine and arginine. When animated, glutamic acid forms the vital amino acid glutamine. Because it has a carboxylic acid moiety on the side chain, glutamic acid is one of only two amino acids that has a net negative charge at physiological pH. This negative charge makes glutamic acid a very polar molecule and it is typically found on the outside of proteins and enzymes where it is free to interact with the aqueous intracellular surroundings. On a molar basis, glutamic acid is included into proteins at a rate of 6.2 % compared to the other amino acids.
Glutamine is one of the twenty amino acids usually present in animal proteins. Glutamine is the richest amino acid in the body. Over 61% of skeletal muscle tissue is glutamine. It contains 2 ammonia groups, one from its precursor, glutamate and the other from free ammonia in the bloodstream. Glutamine is concerned in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Glutamine is transformed to glucose when the body as a power source requires more glucose. Glutamine assists in maintaining the proper acid or alkaline balance in the body, and is the source of the building blocks for the synthesis of RNA and DNA. In animal research, glutamine has anti inflammatory effects. Glutamine also reduces the craving for sweets and sugar, which is helpful to people wishing to lose weight.
Glutamic acid is a nonessential amino acid used by the body for a variety of functions. Glutamic Acid is present as a glutamine precursor. Glutamine may also be transformed to glutamic acid. Therefore, glutamine and glutamic acid are somewhat inter convertible.
Glutamic acid is also a component of folic acid and a precursor of glutathione, an antioxidant. Glutamic acid can play a role in the normal function of the heart and the prostate. Under normal situation, humans can meet their glutamate necessities directly from the diet or by making it from precursor molecules so only an individual deficient in protein would become deficient in glutamic acid.
Glutamic acid is also a vital neurotransmitter concerned with the transportation of potassium across the blood-brain barrier and is vital in the metabolism of sugars and fats.
Glutamine is a non essential amino acid and is establish in large amounts in the muscles of the body, and since it effortlessly pass through the blood-brain barrier, it is also called as a superb brain fuel and a number of people refer to it as a "smart-vitamin" although it is in actual fact no vitamin at all. Glutamic acid, a non-essential amino acid and is synthesized from a number of amino acids including ornithine and arginine.
Glutamic Acid is the precursor of GABA but has rather the opposite function; it is an excitatory neurotransmitter. It is one of the few nutrients that crosses the blood-brain barrier and is the only means by which ammonia in the brain can be detoxified.
It is measured to be nature's "Brain food" by improving mental capacities; and is used in the treatment of depression, mental retardation, fatigue, alcoholism, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy and schizophrenia.
Glutamine willingly passes the blood-brain barrier and raises the quantity of glutamic acid and GABA; thus enhancing normal nervous system function. As amino acids chemically vary, ammonia is released. Glutamine plays a role in the elimination of this toxic ammonia from the brain.
Because glutamine's role in the nervous system is so significant, during the stress, illness, or surgery up to one third of the muscle stores of glutamine are released for nervous system usage; causing wide muscle deterioration and loss. The muscle glutamine release is much lower if glutamine levels are raised through supplemental L-glutamine.
Supplemental L-glutamine is also used therapeutically for impotence, schizophrenia, arthritis, autoimmune diseases and developmental disabilities and for tissue damage from cancer radiation treatments.
Supplemental glutamine should not be taken by any person with a disproducts or products index that causes an accumulation of ammonia in the blood.
The brain first and foremost uses glutamic acid. It has the capability to pick up excess ammonia, which inhibits brain functioning and change it into glutamine. Since glutamine produces an elevation of glutamic acid, a lack in the diet can outcome in a shortage of glutamic acid in the brain.
Glutamine has also been exposed to help in the control of alcoholism, shorten the healing time of ulcers and alleviate fatigue, depression and impotence. It has also been used effectively in the cure of schizophrenia and senility.
Sources of glutamic acid
Food sources of glutamic acid include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products, as well as some protein-rich plant foods.
Glutamine is found in a lot of high protein foods, such as beans, ulcers, hypoglycemic come, muscular dystrophy, epilepsy and dairy as well as in vegetables such as raw parsley and spinach.
Benefits of glutamine and glutamic acid
Glutamine is transformed to glutamic acid in the brain, which is necessary for cerebral functions and raises the amount of GABA, which is essential for brain functioning and mental activity. It is used in the muscles for the synthesis of muscle proteins and is of use for the cure of wasting muscles later than illness or post operative care. Although the body requires nitrogen, free nitrogen in the body can be damaging since it forms ammonia particularly toxic to the brain. The liver usually converts ammonia to urea, excreted in the urine but glutamic acid attaches itself to nitrogen and forms glutamic acid, while removing ammonia from the brain. It further is used in the body to balance the acid or alkaline level and is also the basis or building blocks of RNA and DNA. It serves as a source of fuel for cells lining the intestines and it is also used by white blood cells and is significant for immune function.
Glutamic acid is a significant excitatory neurotransmitter and glutamic acid is also vital in the metabolism of sugars and fats. It helps with the carrying of potassium across the blood brain barrier, although it does not pass this barrier that effortlessly. It also shows assure in the future treatment of neurological circumstances, Parkinson's, ulcers, hypoglycemic come, muscular dystrophy, epilepsy and mental retardation. Glutamic acid can be used as fuel in the brain and can attach itself to nitrogen atoms in the procedure of forming glutamine and this action also detoxifies the body of ammonia. This action is the only way in which the brain can be detoxified from ammonia. The fluid created by the prostate gland also contains amounts of glutamic acid and may play a important role in the normal function of the prostate.
Deficiency symptoms of glutamine
Deficiency of this nutrient is uncommon, since it can be manufactured by the body but deficiencies can build up during periods of fasting, cirrhosis, starvation, strict dieting and weight loss connected with AIDS and cancer.
Symptoms of high intake
High dosages of glutamic acid can contain symptoms such as neurological and headaches troubles.
In the attendance of excellent health, supplementation of glutamine should not be essential.