Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. In the brain, dopamine function as a neurotransmitter, activate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus. Its main function as a hormone is to inhibit the release of prolactin from the anterior lobe of the pituitary.
Regulation of dopamine plays a crucial role in our mental and physical health. Neurons containing the neurotransmitter dopamine are clustered in the midbrain in an area called the substantia nigra. In Parkinson's disease, the dopamine- transmitting neurons in this area die. As a result, the brains of people with Parkinson's disease contain almost no dopamine. To help relieve their symptoms, we give these people L-DOPA, a drug that can be converted in the brain to dopamine.
Dopamine antagonists are traditionally used to treat schizophrenia and related mental disorders. A person with schizophrenia may have an overactive dopamine system. Dopamine antagonists can help regulate this system by "turning down" dopamine activity.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is believed to be caused by a deficiency of dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger between nerve cells in the mammalian brain. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer increasing motor behavior impairment, usually at an older age. The primary symptoms include: muscular rigidity, resting tremor, difficulty with movement initiation (bradykinesia), slowness of voluntary movement, difficulty with balance, and difficulty with walking. This disease was named following the English MD. James Parkinson, who in 1817 was the first person to describe these symptoms as 'the shaking palsy',
Dopamine research has enhanced scientists' understanding of how diseases and addictions originate and develop. This understanding is leading to new treatment possibilities. Drugs, which act first and foremost as dopamine receptor agonists or antagonists can, serve as important clinical tools. Dopaminergic neurotransmission can mediate or modulate behaviors ranging from ambulation and stereotypy to self-stimulation, TOP conditioned avoidance responding, feeding and drinking.
D opamine is a biogenic amine synthesized in the hypothalamus, in the arcuate nucleus, the caudate, and various areas of the central and peripheral nervous system. It has been extensively established that dopamine and its agonists play an significant role in cardiovascular, renal, hormonal, and central nervous system regulation through encouragement of alpha and beta-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors. There are more than a few agonists of dopamine-2 (DA 2) dopaminergic receptors, such as bromocriptine, pergolide, lisuride, quinpirole, and carmoxirole, which inhibit norepinephrine let go and produce a decrease in arterial blood pressure; in a number of cases, bromocriptine and pergolide also reduce heart rate.
A number of psychiatric disorders are associated with imbalances with dopamine, particularly schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and mood disorders, including certain types of depression. Dopamine might also be concerned in restless legs syndrome.
Dopamine is just one of many neurotransmitters used for communications between brain cells known as neurons. Neurotransmitters convey a nervous impulse across the gap that separates one neuron from another. Later than the signal has been passed along, the neurotransmitters diffuse away, are actively dismantled by enzymes or are reabsorbed by protein complexes called transporters on the surface of the originating neuron. "It's known that the adenosine receptor and the dopamine receptors are present in some of the same areas of the brain, and sometimes even on the same cell. This fits in perfectly with our idea that dopamine fights against the tendency of adenosine to promote sleep,"
Benefits of dopamine
Dopamine is critical to the way the brain controls our movements and is a crucial part of the basal ganglia motor loop. Shortage of dopamine, particularly the death of dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, causes Parkinson's disease, in which a person loses the ability to execute smooth, controlled movements.
In the periphery, physiological dopamine increase renal blood flow, decrease renal resistance and act on the kidney tubule to improve natriuresis and diuresis. The loss of dopamine function may be concerned in the deterioration in kidney function connected with ageing and may have a position in the pathogenesis of hypertension and diabetes.
Dopamine is used primarily for the treatment of hypotension that is not secondary to hypovolemia. Dopamine, little explains, triggers the actions required to repeat previous pleasures. It's not only involved in drug users' "high" - it helps drive us to eat, work, feel emotions, and reproduce. Normally, when something pleasurable happens, dopamine neurons pump the chemical into the gaps between themselves and related brain cells. Dopamine finds its way to receptors on neighboring cells, triggering signals that help set off pathways to different feelings or sensations.
Dopamines are generally prescribed to treat Parkinson's disease. However, in a number of people there may be a association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and abnormalities in how the body produces or uses dopamine. A health professional may prescribe medication as treatment for continuous RLS symptoms that frequently disturb sleep, in which case dopamines are usually the first choice.
Schizophrenia has also been established to be hereditary. This biological confusion of the brain is a outcome of abnormalities, which arise near the beginning in life and disrupt the normal development of the brain. These abnormalities engage structural difference among a schizophrenic brain and a healthy brain. Schizophrenic brains are inclined to have better lateral ventricles and a lesser volume of tissue in the left temporal lobe in comparison to healthy brains. The chemical nature of a schizophrenic brain is also dissimilar in the way the brain handles dopamine, a neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters transmit impulses between neurons.