It is also called as filtrate factor. It is a water-soluble vitamin.
In 1901, a development issue for yeast, bios was described by Wildiers. In 1933 Williams and his coworkers isolated the crystalline product and known as it pantothenic acid because of worldwide distribution. It was synthesized in 1940 by Stiller and others.
The liberated acid is viscous, yellow oil, soluble in water and ethyl acetate. It is heat labile and destroyed in acid and alkali.
There is a very old evidence for a relation between pantothenic acid and adrenal cortical function. Current studies have shown a more exact role for pantothenic acid in the biosynthesis of corticosteroids.
Human blood normally contains 18 to 35 mg of pantothenic acid per 100ml, generally present in the cells as coenzyme A.
It is most effective when taken with the B group vitamins, Vitamin A , vitamin C and Vitamin E
Sources of vitamin B5
It is extensively distributed in small amounts.
Animal sources: contain liver, kidney, egg-yolk; yeast, milk etc. are the extremity richest sources of this vitamin.
Vegetable sources: molasses, sweet potatoes, wheat bran, peas etc. include this vitamin in appreciable amounts.
It has also been created synthetically.
Benefits of vitamin B5
The physiologically active form of pantothenic acid is coenzyme A (CoA). It is necessary for a number of basic reactions of metabolism.
It acts as a mediator in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and etc. coenzyme A plays a significant part in the lipid metabolism. An excellent amount of pantothenic acid is present in the protein bound form. This protein bound pantothenic acid is the acyl carrier protein and is necessary for the biosynthesis of the fatty acids.
It also helps in the synthesis of hemoglobin. It is also used to relieve the burning sensation of hands and feet and infrequently in alopecia and to prevent premature graying of hair.
Some are of the view that pantothenic acid is also useful to fight wrinkles as well as graying of the hair.
It is also said to be concerned in the regulation of gene expression and in signal transduction. Roger J. Williams, the explorer of pantothenic acid and a scientist who pioneered the use of nutrients for the prevention and cure of disease, thought that pantothenic acid might be useful in the management of certain medical disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Dermatitis, fatty liver, degeneration of spinal cord, myelin degeneration of peripheral nerves, and involution of thymus occurs due to deficiency of this vitamin. A variety of tissues are also exaggerated, including gastro-intestinal disturbances, alopecia, cornification of the skin and hypofunction of adrenal cortex.
Deficiency of pantothenic acid can also cause retarded development, failure of reproduction, dermatitis, and haemorrhagic adrenal cortical necrosis.
In the human being, no definite deficiency syndrome has been proved, presumably because of the broad incidence of this vitamin in approximately all food and because small amounts of the vitamin can be synthesized in the body. This does not mean that pantothenic acid is not of importance in the metabolic systems of the body; certainly possible it is as essential as any other vitamin.
Deficiency may also outcome in symptoms similar to fatigue, headaches, and nausea, tingling in the hands, depression, personality changes and cardiac instability.
Frequent infection, fatigue, abdominal pains, sleeps turbulence and neurological disorders with numbness, paresthesia (abnormal sensation such as "burning feet" syndrome), muscle weakness and cramps are an also probable sign, which indicates that there is deficiency of this vitamin.
Biochemical changes contain increased insulin sensitivity, lowered blood cholesterol, reduced serum potassium, and failure of adrenocorticotropin to encourage eosinopenia.
It is not precisely known. Average every day diet includes 10mgm, which satisfies this vitamin necessity.
Symptoms of high intake
It does not come into view to be toxic in high dosage, although diarrhea, digestive turbulence and water retention have been reported on dosage more than 10 g a day.
Taking 1,500 mg a day over a comprehensive era may cause sensitivity to the teeth.
When more is needed
People under stress, prone to allergies, consuming alcohol or eating too many refined foods might develop a shortage of this vitamin.
Do not insert soda to the water while cooking vegetables - it will wipe out the pantothenic acid.